Virtualization of Digitalized Cultural Assets to Promote Sustainable Heritage Tourism in Malaysia

Authors

  • Hajiedah Fauzi Department of Applied Arts and Design, Kulliyah of Architecture & Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak, Malaysia
  • Harlina Md Sharif Department of Applied Arts and Design, Kulliyah of Architecture & Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak, Malaysia
  • Rajabi Abdul Razak Department of Applied Arts and Design, Kulliyah of Architecture & Environmental Design, International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26418/ijeas.2022.2.02.85-99

Keywords:

cultural assets, digitalized, sustainable, tourism, virtualization

Abstract

A key policy goal for every nation is to ensure that their rich cultural treasures are preserved for future generations to enjoy and be inspired. In this regard, the virtualization of digitalized cultural assets has the potential to make heritage experienced in a new and unique way. However, as the guardian of the nation’s cultural assets, the museum sector in Malaysia was caught unprepared when it experienced a 70 percent dip in the attendance of visitors during the pandemic due to its inability to capitalize on technology and reach out to local and international visitors. Thus, the study’s primary objective is to assess the technology readiness level in Malaysian museums in adopting virtual heritage technologies. However, this paper explicitly discusses the challenges and methods of virtualization in museums by reviewing available literature and case studies of museums with interactive technology to understand the current technology state of museums in Malaysia. Consequently, working terminologies related to virtual heritage adoption by museums will be elaborated to define the scope and limitations of such studies. Most museums identified with Augmented Reality applications in Malaysia are still in an early stage of virtual technology adoption. Only Borneo Cultural Museum has embraced 30% interactive exhibition. Thus, this paper suggests that an in-depth study needs to be conducted to survey the technology readiness of museums in Malaysia.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abu Bakar, M. S., Zulkifli, M. A., Harun, K. N., & Shuki, M. S. (2020). Exploring digital platforms, cultural tourism, and online learning of Museums Worldwide. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(6), 633–642. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v10-i6/7338

Alazaizeh, M. (2014). Sustainable Heritage Tourism: A Tourist-Oriented Approach for Managing Petra Archaeological Park, Jordan. [Dissertation, Clemson University]. Tiger Prints. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_dissertations/1430

Amirul. (2021, July 26). Malaysia's journey in the Digital age. MIDA. Retrieved August 19, 2022, from https://www.mida.gov.my/malaysias-journey-in-the-digital-age/

App Store. (2022). ‎Muzium Negara AR. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/my/app/muzium-negara-ar/id1601151267

Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & Macintyre, B. (2001). Recent Advances in Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21, 34-47. https://doi.org/10.1109/38.963459

Bangkok Post. (2022, April 4). Malaysia's digital challenges. Bangkok Post. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/2289826/malaysias-digital-challenges

Bekele, M. K., Pierdicca, R., Frontoni, E., Malinverni, E. S., & Gain, J. (2018). A Survey of Augmented, Virtual, and Mixed Reality for Cultural Heritage. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 11(2), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1145/3145534

Bernama. (2021, April 28). Terengganu Quran Manuscript in Digital Form at UMT. BERNAMA. Retrieved July 6, 2022, from https://www.bernama.com/en/news.php?id=1956637

Bernama. (2022, March 17). Experience AR Interaction at the Museum. The Star. Retrieved July 7, 2022, from https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/metro-news/2022/03/17/experience-ar-interaction-at-the-museum

Borneo Cultures Museum: Largest Museum in Malaysia (Best Sarawak Guide). Veroalex. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2022, from https://www.veroalex.com/borneo-cultures-museum-sarawak/

Chi, H.-L., Kang, S.-C., & Wang, X. (2013). Research Trends and Opportunities of Augmented Reality Applications in Architecture, Engineering, and Construction. Automation in Construction, 33, 116–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2012.12.017

Chuah, S. H.-W. (2018). Why and Who Will Adopt Extended Reality Technology? Literature Review, Synthesis, and Future Research Agenda. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3300469

Cirulis, A., Paolis, L. T., & Tutberidze, M. (2015). Virtualization of Digitalized Cultural Heritage and Use Case Scenario Modeling for Sustainability Promotion of National Identity. Procedia Computer Science, 77, 199–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.384

Coates, C. (2022, April 17). How Museums Are Using Augmented Reality. MuseumNext. Retrieved August 24, 2022, from https://www.museumnext.com/article/how-museums-are-using-augmented-reality/

Cuseum. (2018, February 16). Cuseum & Pérez Art Museum Miami Bring Exhibition to Life with Ar. Cuseum. Retrieved August 24, 2022, from https://cuseum.com/blog/cuseum-perez-art-museum-miami-bring-exhibition

David, A. (2021, December 7). Muzium Negara Has Potential to Regenerate Economy. Retrieved August 19, 2022, from https://api.nst.com.my/news/nation/2021/12/752183/muzium-negara-has-potential-regenerate-economy

Department of Museums Malaysia. (n.d). Muzium Negara AR Mobile App. Retrieved July 6, 2022, from http://www.jmm.gov.my/en/content/muzium-negara-ar-mobile-app

Desai, N. (2018). Recreation of History Using Augmented Reality. ACCENTS Transactions on Image Processing and Computer Vision, 4(10), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.19101/tipcv.2017.39019

Esmaeili, H., Thwaites, H., & Woods, P. C. (2017). Workflows and Challenges Involved in the Creation of Realistic Immersive Virtual Museum, Heritage, and Tourism Experiences: A Comprehensive Reference for 3D Asset Capturing. 2017 13th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS). https://doi.org/10.1109/sitis.2017.82

Firšt, D., & Petljak, N. (2022, January 13). Interactive Museum Exhibitions - Examples and Technologies. DITDOT. Retrieved July 3, 2022, from https://www.ditdot.hr/en/interactive-museum-exhibitions-examples-and-technologies

Fulldome.Pro. (2021, January 12). Immersive Technology in Museums and Exhibitions: Fulldome Pro. Retrieved June 21, 2022, from https://fulldome.pro/blog/immersive-technology-in-museums-and-exhibitions/

Giannini, & P. Bowen. (2022). Museums and Digital Culture: from Reality to Digitality in the Age of . Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356675801_Museums_and_Digital_Culture_From_Reality_to_Digitality_in_the_Age_of_Covid-19

Guie, L. H. (2020). Digital Transformation Needs Urgency | The Star. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2020/05/30/digital-transformation-needs-urgency

Hassani, F. (2015, August 1). Directory of Open Access Journals. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Retrieved July 3, 2022, from https://doaj.org/article/8759e773fe8b4952a3c2a8b1453a3e5f

Ibrahim, N., Mohamad Ali, N., & Mohd Yatim, N. F. (2011). Cultural Learning in Virtual Heritage: An overview. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 273–283. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25200-6_26

Isa, S. S. (2012). Development Issues for the Creative Economy in Malaysia [PhD Thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. from https://eprints.qut.edu.au/50795/1/Siti_Isa_Thesis.pdf

Isa, W. M., Azan, N., Rosdi, F., & Mohd, H. (2019). Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Terengganu Brassware Craft Knowledge Base. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10(6), 96-102. https://doi.org/10.14569/ijacsa.2019.0100614

Ismail, I. (2019). When Tech and Art Collide | New Straits Times - nst.com.my. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.nst.com.my/lifestyle/bots/2019/03/467626/when-tech-and-art-collide

Ismail, Z. I. A., & Chan, B. Y. E. E. (2019). Augmented Reality Mobile Application: Enhancing Visitor Experience in . Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338004757_AUGMENTED_REALITY_MOBILE_APPLICATION_ENHANCING_VISITOR_EXPERIENCE_IN_LABUAN_MUSEUM

Kim, J.-B., & Park, C. (2011). Development of Mobile AR Tour Application for the National Palace Museum of Korea. In R. Shumaker (Ed.), Virtual and Mixed Reality—New Trends (pp. 55–60). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22021-0_7

Markham, A., Osipova, E., Lafrenz Samuels, K. & Caldas, A. (2016). World Heritage and Tourism in a Changing Climate. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France.

Munjeri, D. (2004). Tangible and Intangible Heritage: From Difference to Convergence. Museum International, 56(1-2), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1350-0775.2004.00453.x

Museum Innovation Barometer 2021. (2021.). Retrieved August 19, 2022, from https://museumbooster.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Museum-Innovation-Barometer-2021.pdf

Mydin, D. H. H. (2021, August 24). The World Will Not Wait for Malaysia: Digital Policies Towards Socio-Economic Revitalisation. Digital News Asia. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.digitalnewsasia.com/insights/world-will-not-wait-malaysia-digital-policies-towards-socio-economic-revitalisation

Rashid, N., Sen, A., Gupta, M. S., Amalinaanuar, Kulkarni, E., & Rashid, N. (2022, August 1). What to Know Before Visiting the Highly-Popular Borneo Cultures Museum. Prestige Online - Malaysia. Retrieved August 24, 2022, from https://www.prestigeonline.com/my/pursuits/art-culture/what-you-should-know-before-visiting-the-borneo-cultures-museum/

Razak, A. S., Arif, M., Bidin, F., Zulkefli, Z., Arif, F. E., & Yunus, A. M. (2018). Content Management System as a Digital Source of History in Virtual Museum Organization: A Case Study of Malacca Maritime Museum. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(14), 799-819. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v7-i14/3712

Rosli, & Kamaruddin. (2020, March 16). Visitor Experience's on Digital Media Technology for the Museum Exhibition in Malaysia: A Preliminary Findings. Research and Scientific Innovation Society (RSIS International). Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.rsisinternational.org/virtual-library/papers/visitor-experiences-on-digital-media-technology-for-the-museum-exhibition-in-malaysia-a-preliminary-findings/

Rouhi, J. (2017, December). Definition of Cultural Heritage Properties and Their Values by the Past. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322224022_DEFINITION_OF_CULTURAL_HERITAGE_PROPERTIES_AND_THEIR_VALUES_BY_THE_PAST

Roussou, M. (2004). Learning by Doing and Learning Through Play. Computers in Entertainment, 2(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1145/973801.973818

Ruggles, D.F., Silverman, H. (2009). From Tangible to Intangible Heritage. In: Silverman, H., Ruggles, D. (eds) Intangible Heritage Embodied. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0072-2_1

Sagar, M., & Ocampo, Y. (2022, June 16). Cloud and Beyond: a Turning Point in Malaysia's Digital Transformation. OpenGov Asia. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://opengovasia.com/cloud-and-beyond-a-turning-point-in-malaysias-digital-transformation/

SAOLA - Revivre. (2021). SAOLA. https://www.saolastudio.com/en-gb/revivre

Sarawak Museum Department. (2021). About Ministry. Sarawak Museum Department. https://museum.sarawak.gov.my/page-0-0-147-About-Ministry.html

SER, S. H. (2020, January). Museums and Tourism: Reengineering the Role of Museums in Malaysia's Cultural Heritage Tourism. Business Economic, Communication, and Social Sciences (BECOSS) Journal. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://journal.binus.ac.id/index.php/BECOSS/article/view/6151

Shu, L. (2015, May 2). How Museums Are Using Technology. Digital Trends. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/how-museums-are-using-technology/

Stogner, M. B. (2009). The Media-Enhanced Museum Experience: Debating the Use of Media Technology in Cultural Exhibitions. Curator: The Museum Journal, 52(4), 385–397. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.2009.tb00360.x

Subramaniam, P. (2021, March 1). Malaysia Digital Economy Blueprint: Mydigital Blueprint to Drive Malaysia's High-Income Nation Aspirations. The Edge Markets. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/malaysia-digital-economy-blueprint-mydigital-blueprint-drive-malaysias-highincome-nation

TM One. (2020, January 16). Malaysia Is Ready for Industry 4.0. Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://www.tmone.com.my/resources/think-tank/article/malaysia-is-ready-for-industry-4-0/

UNESCO. (2019, April 2). Concept of Digital Heritage. Retrieved July 1, 2022, from https://en.unesco.org/themes/information-preservation/digital-heritage/concept-digital-heritage

UNESCO. (2020). (rep.). Museums around the World in the Face of COVID-19. Retrieved August 19, 2022, from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000376729_eng

UNWTO. (n.d.). Sustainable Development. Retrieved July 9, 2022, from https://www.unwto.org/sustainable-development

Virtual Museum Melaka. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2022, from http://www.virtualmuseummelaka.com/

What is Digital Readiness? Meaning, Examples, Breakdown - Oden Tech. Oden Technologies. (2021, March 29). Retrieved August 23, 2022, from https://oden.io/blog/what-is-digital-readiness/

Wilson. (2020, March 23). 10 of the World's Best Virtual Museum and Art Gallery Tours. The Guardian. Retrieved July 7, 2022, from https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2020/mar/23/10-of-the-worlds-best-virtual-museum-and-art-gallery-tours

Yusoff, Z., Dahlan, H.M., Abdullah, N.S. (2015). Integration of Mobile Based Learning Model Through Augmented Reality Book by Incorporating Students Attention Elements. In: Sulaiman, H., Othman, M., Othman, M., Rahim, Y., Pee, N. (eds) Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 315. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07674-4_54

Downloads

Published

2022-08-31

How to Cite

Fauzi, H., Sharif, H. M., & Razak, R. A. (2022). Virtualization of Digitalized Cultural Assets to Promote Sustainable Heritage Tourism in Malaysia. International Journal of Environment, Architecture, and Societies, 2(02), 85-99. https://doi.org/10.26418/ijeas.2022.2.02.85-99